Continuing with the sugar stages as detailed in William Jarrin’s The Italian Confectioner of 1820:
No. 9.-- A Ball.
Dip your finger into a glass of cold water, then into your sugar, and into the water again; if you make your sugar into a small ball, it is the small ball; when larger and harder, it is the great ball. [p4]
No. 10.-- A Crack.
Dip the same finger into the sugar, and on taking it out, if the sugar that adheres to it breaks in your finger, with a slight noise, and does not stick to the tooth, it is a crack. Boil it again; and if it break on plunging your finger into the water, it is the great crack; you must be very attentive, for it passes rapidly to caramel, and will burn, if not attended to, in a minute. [pp 4-5]
No. ll.-- A Caramel.
It breaks, as just observed, making a noise, like glass. When the Sugar is at the crack, add to it five or six drops of lemon juice to prevent its graining. When boiled, take it from the fire and put the bottom of the pan into cold water to prevent its burning. The production of caramel is attended with some difficulty and great attention is necessary. As we can see in a moment the colour of caramel we wish to obtain, we must use the lemon juice cautiously, as too large a quantity would spoil the sugar. If no lemon juice be at hand, a few drops of vinegar, honey, or butter-- any acid or grease will smooth the sugar, which is naturally disposed to grain. As the sugar has no longer any moisture, it requires a strong fire, but this must be applied to the body of the sugar only; for, if the fire be too fierce, it will burn the sugar to the sides of the pan, which will completely spoil it. The edges of the pan must be kept clean with a small sponge. [p 5]
Having finished his discussion of sugar boiling, Jarrin then moves into the production of sugar candies.