Menon, continued from the 1769 English second edition of The Professed Cook: or the Modern Art of Cookery
Cuissons au grand Perle, et la petite, & la grande Queue de Cochon, au Souffle, & a la petite Plume.
Third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, and eighth Degrees of refining. Perle, from Pearl from large and small, small and large Pig’s or Tails puffed or blowed; Plume, Feather. [p 508]
The grand Perle is boiled a little longer than the small, and is known to be the Degree wanted, by not breaking, by all the Extension that can be made with the Fingers; and also when it forms in small Pearls in the Boiling, round and raised; by which I presume it takes its Name; in boiling this last a little longer, it comes to the fifth Degree, petit Queue de Cochon; it is known, by taking up some of the Sugar with a skimmer, and drop it into the boiling Sugar again; if it forms a slanting [standing?] Streak on the Surface, this is the little Pig's-tail. The sixth degree is la grande Queue de Cochon, which directed as follows by a little more Boiling; and tried in the same Manner as the last, forms a larger Pig's tail. After a little more boiling comes the seventh Degree, au soufflé, blowed; which is known by dipping a Skimmer in it; give it a Shake, and blow through it directly; if it blows to small Sparks of Sugar, or Kinds of small Bladders, it is to the proposed Qualification. The eighth comes with a little more Boiling, La petite Plume, small Feathers, which is known by the same trial; the Difference only is, that the Sparks or Bladders are to be larger, and of a stronger substance. [p 508-509]
[Wheaton lists petit and grand perle as being 220-222 degrees F. Petit and grand queue de cochon are upper 220s. The skimmer soufflé stage is 228-230. Lower 230 degrees are the plume stages. p 184]
Le grande Plume. A large Feather, ninth Degree.
It is known by the former Method, by still more boiling, and the Proof stronger; or the surest is by dipping a Skimmer in it, and give it a strong Turn-over Shake of the Hand; if it turns to large Sparks, which clog together in the Rising, it is done to this Degree. [p 509]
Le petit Boulet
A small or Bullet, tenth Degree.
It is done by a little more Boiling, and proved by dipping two Fingers in cold Water, and directly into the Sugar, and into cold Water again; what sticks to your Fingers, ought to roll up like a Bit of Paste, hard enough to roll in small Bullets and to remain pretty supple, when cold. [p 509]
Eleventh Degree Le gros Boulet large Bullet; this is proved by the last Method, which by a little more Boiling makes the Bullet harder, when cold, as it ought to be. [p 510]
[Wheaton lists petit and grand boulet as being 235-265 degrees F. p 184]
Le Casse, broken;
By continuing to boil the sugar, it is known by the same Method, as in the two last; the only Difference is, that the Bullet which is made of this, ought to crumble between the Fingers, being first dipped in cold Water; twelfth Degree. [p 510]
Le Caramel. Burnt Sugar, thirteenth Degree.
The refining is little different from the last; to make it pretty clear, squeeze some Lemon in it, while it is boiling; there is also a deep Colour Caramel, of which the Uses shall be mentioned; it is made with only a little Water, with the Sugar boiling it, without stirring to raise any Scum, until it is to the Colour required; and to take it off the Fire for present Use, to all the different Degrees of Preparation; if missed at first, add a little Water to refresh the Sugar, and boil it over again, until it comes to the Qualification required. [p 510]